Short Description of Mathematical Functions

The following operations and functions can be applied in Qucs equations. For detailed description please refer to the “Measurement Expressions Reference Manual”. Parameters in brackets “[]” are optional.


Arithmetic Operators

+x Unary plus
-x Unary minus
x+y Addition
x-y Subtraction
x*y Multiplication
x/y Division
x%y Modulo (remainder of division)
x^y Power

Logical Operators

!x Negation
x&&y And
x||y Or
x^^y Exclusive or
x?y:z Abbreviation for conditional expression - if x then y else z
x==y Equal
x!=y Not equal
x<y Less than
x<=y Less than or equal
x>y Larger than
x>=y Larger than or equal

Math Functions

Vectors and Matrices: Creation

eye(n) Creates n x n identity matrix
length(y) Returns the length of the y vector
linspace(from,to,n) Real vector with n lin spaced components between from and to
logspace(from,to,n) Real vector with n log spaced components between from and to

Vectors and Matrices: Basic Matrix Functions

adjoint(x) Adjoint matrix of x (transposed and conjugate complex)
det(x) Determinant of a matrix x
inverse(x) Inverse matrix of x
transpose(x) Transposed matrix of x (rows and columns exchanged)

Elementary Mathematical Functions: Basic Real and Complex Functions

abs(x) Absolute value, magnitude of complex number
angle(x) Phase angle in radians of a complex number. Synonym for arg()
arg(x) Phase angle in radians of a complex number
conj(x) Conjugate of a complex number
deg2rad(x) Converts phase from degrees into radians
hypot(x,y) Euclidean distance function
imag(x) Imaginary part of a complex number
mag(x) Magnitude of a complex number
norm(x) Square of the absolute value of a vector
phase(x) Phase angle in degrees of a complex number
polar(m,p) Transform polar coordinates m and p into a complex number
rad2deg(x) Converts phase from radians into degrees
real(x) Real part of a complex number
sign(x) Signum function
sqr(x) Square (power of two) of a number
sqrt(x) Square root
unwrap(p[,tol[,step]]) Unwrap angle p (radians) – defaults step = 2pi, tol = pi

Elementary Mathematical Functions: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

exp(x) Exponential function to basis e
limexp(x) Limited exponential function
log10(x) Decimal logarithm
log2(x) Binary logarithm
ln(x) Natural logarithm (base e )

Elementary Mathematical Functions: Trigonometry

cos(x) Cosine function
cosec(x) Cosecant
cot(x) Cotangent function
sec(x) Secant
sin(x) Sine function
tan(x) Tangent function

Elementary Mathematical Functions: Inverse Trigonometric Functions

arccos(x) Arc cosine (also known as “inverse cosine”)
arccosec(x) Arc cosecant
arccot(x) Arc cotangent
arcsec(x) Arc secant
arcsin(x) Arc sine (also known as “inverse sine”)
arctan(x[,y]) Arc tangent (also known as “inverse tangent”)

Elementary Mathematical Functions: Hyperbolic Functions

cosh(x) Hyperbolic cosine
cosech(x) Hyperbolic cosecant
coth(x) Hyperbolic cotangent
sech(x) Hyperbolic secant
sinh(x) Hyperbolic sine
tanh(x) Hyperbolic tangent

Elementary Mathematical Functions: Inverse Hyperbolic Functions

arcosh(x) Hyperbolic area cosine
arcosech(x) Hyperbolic area cosecant
arcoth(x) Hyperbolic area cotangent
arsech(x) Hyperbolic area secant
arsinh(x) Hyperbolic area sine
artanh(x) Hyperbolic area tangent

Elementary Mathematical Functions: Rounding

ceil(x) Round to the next higher integer
fix(x) Truncate decimal places from real number
floor(x) Round to the next lower integer
round(x) Round to nearest integer

Elementary Mathematical Functions: Special Mathematical Functions

besseli0(x) Modified Bessel function of order zero
besselj(n,x) Bessel function of first kind and n-th order
bessely(n,x) Bessel function of second kind and n-th order
erf(x) Error function
erfc(x) Complementary error function
erfinv(x) Inverse error function
erfcinv(x) Inverse complementary error function
sinc(x) Sinc function (sin(x)/x or 1 at x = 0)
step(x) Step function

Data Analysis: Basic Statistics

avg(x[,range]) Average of vector x. If range given x must have a single data dependency
cumavg(x) Cumulative average of vector elements
max(x,y) Returns the greater of the values x and y
max(x[,range]) Maximum of vector x. If range given x must have a single data dependency
min(x,y) Returns the lesser of the values x and y
min(x[,range]) Minimum of vector x. If range is given x must have a single data dependency
rms(x) Root Mean Square of vector elements
runavg(x) Running average of vector elements
stddev(x) Standard deviation of vector elements
variance(x) Variance of vector elements
random() Random number between 0.0 and 1.0
srandom(x) Give random seed

Data Analysis: Basic Operation

cumprod(x) Cumulative product of vector elements
cumsum(x) Cumulative sum of vector elements
interpolate(f,x[,n]) Spline interpolation of vector f using n equidistant points of x
prod(x) Product of vector elements
sum(x) Sum of vector elements
xvalue(f,yval) Returns x-value nearest to yval in single dependency vector f
yvalue(f,xval) Returns y-value nearest to xval in single dependency vector f

Data Analysis: Differentiation and Integration

ddx(expr,var) Derives mathematical expression expr with respect to the variable var
diff(y,x[,n]) Differentiate vector y with respect to vector x n times. Defaults to n = 1
integrate(x,h) Integrate vector x numerically assuming a constant step-size h

Data Analysis: Signal Processing

dft(x) Discrete Fourier Transform of vector x
fft(x) Fast Fourier Transform of vector x
fftshift(x) Shuffles the FFT values of vector x to move DC to the center of the vector
Freq2Time(V,f) Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform of function V(f) interpreting it physically
idft(x) Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform of vector x
ifft(x) Inverse Fast Fourier Transform of vector x
kbd(x[,n]) Kaiser-Bessel derived window
Time2Freq(v,t) Discrete Fourier Transform of function v(t) interpreting it physically

Electronics Functions

Unit Conversion

dB(x) dB value
dbm(x) Convert voltage to power in dBm
dbm2w(x) Convert power in dBm to power in Watts
w2dbm(x) Convert power in Watts to power in dBm
vt(t) Thermal voltage for a given temperature t in Kelvin

Reflection Coefficients and VSWR

rtoswr(x) Converts reflection coefficient to voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
rtoy(x[,zref]) Converts reflection coefficient to admittance; default zref = 50 ohms
rtoz(x[,zref]) Converts reflection coefficient to impedance; default zref = 50 ohms
ytor(x[,zref]) Converts admittance to reflection coefficient; default zref = 50 ohms
ztor(x[,zref]) Converts impedance to reflection coefficient; default zref = 50 ohms

N-Port Matrix Conversions

stos(s,zref[,z0]) Converts S-parameter matrix to S-parameter matrix with a different Z0
stoy(s[,zref]) Converts S-parameter matrix to Y-parameter matrix
stoz(s[,zref]) Converts S-parameter matrix to Z-parameter matrix
twoport(m,from,to) Converts a two-port matrix: from and to are ‘Y’, ‘Z’, ‘H’, ‘G’, ‘A’, ‘S’ and ‘T’.
ytos(y[,z0]) Converts Y-parameter matrix to S-parameter matrix
ytoz(y) Converts Y-parameter matrix to Z-parameter matrix
ztos(z[,z0]) Converts Z-parameter matrix to S-parameter matrix
ztoy(z) Converts Z-parameter matrix to Y-parameter matrix


GaCircle(s,Ga[,arcs]) Available power gain Ga circles (source plane )
GpCircle(s,Gp[,arcs]) Operating power gain Gp circles (load plane)
Mu(s) Mu stability factor of a two-port S-parameter matrix
Mu2(s) Mu’ stability factor of a two-port S-parameter matrix
NoiseCircle(Sopt,Fmin,Rn,F[,Arcs]) Noise Figure(s) F circles
PlotVs(data,dep) Returns data selected from data: dependency dep
Rollet(s) Rollet stability factor of a two-port S-parameter matrix
StabCircleL(s[,arcs]) Stability circle in the load plane
StabCircleS(s[,arcs]) Stability circle in the source plane
StabFactor(s) Stability factor of a two-port S-parameter matrix
StabMeasure(s) Stability measure B1 of a two-port S-parameter matrix



LO:HI Range from LO to HI
:HI Up to HI
LO: From LO
: No range limitations

Matrices and Matrix Elements

M The whole matrix M
M[2,3] Element being in 2nd row and 3rd column of matrix M
M[:,3] Vector consisting of 3rd column of matrix M


2.5 Real number
1.4+j5.1 Complex number
[1,3,5,7] Vector
[11,12;21,22] Matrix

Number suffixes

E exa, 1e+18
P peta, 1e+15
T tera, 1e+12
G giga, 1e+9
M mega, 1e+6
k kilo, 1e+3
m milli, 1e-3
u micro, 1e-6
n nano, 1e-9
p pico, 1e-12
f femto, 1e-15
a atto, 1e-18

Name of Values

S[1,1] S-parameter value
nodename.V DC voltage at node nodename
name.I DC current through component name
nodename.v AC voltage at node nodename
name.i AC current through component name AC noise voltage at node nodename AC noise current through component name
nodename.Vt Transient voltage at node nodename
name.It Transient current through component name

Note: All voltages and currents are peak values. Note: Noise voltages are RMS values at 1 Hz bandwidth.


i, j Imaginary unit (“square root of -1”)
pi 4*arctan(1) = 3.14159...
e Euler = 2.71828...
kB Boltzmann constant = 1.38065e-23 J/K
q Elementary charge = 1.6021765e-19 C

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